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The Yisroel V'Hazmanim brings the Medrash (Yalkut Shimoni Bamidbar 29) that says that Hashem wanted to give a Moed to each of the summer months. Nisan He gave Pesach, Iyar Pesach Sheini, and Sivan was Matan Torah. Then came Tammuz and the Chait HaEigel, and all Yamim Tovim for Tammuz, Av, and Elul were cancelled. In Tishrei, Hashem paid them back with Rosh HaShanah, Yom Kippur, and Succos.
The Chida says that had we not done the Eigel, Rosh HaShanah would have been in Tammuz and Yom Kippur in Av. In fact, says the Chida, that is when the Avos HaKedoshim celebrated these Moadim. However after the Eigel instead of celebrating receiving the Luchos in Tammuz, and turning the three weeks of Ymei Din into Yimei Ratzon, today we mourn for twenty one days. This is made up to us in Tishrei when we have twenty one days of Ratzon in the time of Din, from Rosh HaShanah until Hoshana Rabba.
One day soon these days will once again be joyous days, as the Pasuk in Zechariah (8:19) says, "Tzom HaRevi'i V'Tzom HaChamishi V'Tzom HaShevi'i V'Tzom HaAsiri Yihiyeh L'Bais Yehuda L'Sason U'L'Simcha U'L'Moadim Tovim". Then, says the Maharal MiPrague, Shiva Asar B'Tammuz and Tisha B'Av will be Yomim Tovim and the days in between will be Chol HaMoed. But only for those who mourn today.