By the Mitzva of Shiluach HaKen the torah tells us (Ki Seitzei 22:7), "L'maan Yitav Lach V'Haarachta Yamim", in order that it will be good for you and you will live a long life. By Kibud Av V'Eim in the second Dibros (VaEschanan 5:17), the torah promises the same reward that we don't find anywhere except for these two mitzvos. What is the commonality between them?
The Klei Yakar answers that the words "Lmaam Yitav" imply that the good will be a direct ramification of your doing this mitzva. If you honor your parents your children will learn from you to honor their parents and you will benefit. If you chase away the mother bird before taking her young, you will teach them to have rachmanus even on an animal that gives birth to young and certainly on parents who give birth to their children.
The reason why these two mitzvos are rewarded with long life is because they both testify to the fact that Hashem created the world and it didn't happen by itself. By honoring the previous generation who gave birth to you, you acknowledge that everything in the world came from something before it to which you owe honor. This leads you back to a "first and only" and that would be Hashem to whom you owe the greatest honor. If you believe that the world just happened, then the previous generation is not better than you, but rather a product of timing and you owe them no respect. Fo this you are rewarded with a long life and earning the privilege to spend more time in the world Hashem created.
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